The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts between England and France that lasted from 1415 to 1429.
It began when the English King Henry V invaded France in an attempt to reclaim lands lost by his predecessors during the reign of Edward III. The war saw some major battles, including Agincourt (1415), where the English won a decisive victory over the French, and the Siege of Orleans (1428-1429), which ended with the French recapturing the city.
The causes of the Hundred Years’ War were complex and varied. One of the main issues was the claim of the English kings to the French throne. This had been established by Edward III in 1337, but it was never accepted by the French. In addition, there were disputes over land rights, taxation, and other matters.
During the course of the war, both sides made use of new tactics and technologies.
The English employed longbow archers, who could fire arrows at a much greater range than crossbowmen. They also used gunpowder weapons such as cannons and handguns. On the French side, Joan of Arc led her troops to several victories against the English.
The Hundred Years’ War ultimately ended in a stalemate. Neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage, and the Treaty of Troyes (1420) divided France into two parts: one ruled by the English king, and the other by the French king. However, this arrangement did not last long, and the French eventually regained control of their country.
The Hundred Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe. It changed the balance of power between England and France, and it marked the beginning of the decline of feudalism in Europe. It also helped to shape the modern nation states of England and France, and it set the stage for future wars between them.